Nausea and vomiting risk factors
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- Well established risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting include: 
- female gender post puberty
- nonsmoking status
- history of postoperative nausea and vomiting
- history of motion sickness
- childhood after infancy and younger adulthood
- increasing duration of surgery
- use of volatile anesthetics, nitrous oxide, large-dose neostigmine, or intraoperative or postoperative opioids
- Possible risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting include: 
- history of migraine
- history of postoperative nausea and vomiting or motion sickness in a child's parent or sibling
- intense preoperative anxiety
- certain ethnicities or surgery types
- decreased perioperative fluids
- crystalloid versus colloid administration
- increasing duration of anesthesia
- general versus regional anesthesia or sedation
- balanced versus total IV anesthesia
- use of longer-acting versus shorter-acting opioids
- Risk factors for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy include: 
- Risk factors for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting:  
- Gan TJ (June 2006). "Risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting". Anesth Analg. 102 (6): 1884–98. doi:10.1213/01.ANE.0000219597.16143.4D. PMID 16717343.
- Louik C, Hernandez-Diaz S, Werler MM, Mitchell AA (July 2006). "Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: maternal characteristics and risk factors". Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 20 (4): 270–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2006.00723.x. PMID 16879499.
- Sekine I, Segawa Y, Kubota K, Saeki T (June 2013). "Risk factors of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: index for personalized antiemetic prophylaxis". Cancer Sci. 104 (6): 711–7. doi:10.1111/cas.12146. PMC 7657206 Check
|pmc=value (help). PMID 23480814.
- Hesketh, Paul J.; Aapro, Matti; Street, James C.; Carides, Alexandra D. (2009). "Evaluation of risk factors predictive of nausea and vomiting with current standard-of-care antiemetic treatment: analysis of two phase III trials of aprepitant in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy". Supportive Care in Cancer. 18 (9): 1171–1177. doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0737-9. ISSN 0941-4355.